Monday, March 9, 2015

Project 8051 : Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller

Robotronicdiagram. - For you who still love with 8051 microcontroller, in here we will show you one project 8051. This 8051 project is Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller. In this project you will know the complete of circuit diagram of Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller like in figure 1 below.

Circuit Diagram

Figure 1. Complete Circuit Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller
(Source: www.circuitstoday.com)

Component List

  1. Line sensor using LED / LDR
  2. Comparator Circuit using LM324 IC
  3. Main Control AT89S52 microcontroller
  4. Motor DC driver using ULN2003
Description

Circuit diagram like in figure 1 above is circuit Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller. In this project there are 4 main parts as follow:

  1. Sensor. The sensor part consists of a set of  LED /  LDR pairs  for the left side and right sides. These LED / LDR pairs detect the black line on the white surface on which the robot is supposed to roam. The LDR has an inverse relationship between its resistance and the light falling on it. When a particular LED / LDR pair is above  the white surface  the reflected light falls on the LDR and its resistance drops, conversely when the LED / LDR pair is above  the black  line, its resistance rises.  This variation in resistance of the LDRs are used to asses the orientation of the line follower robot in the X-Y plane. The figure shown below depicts the sensor circuit.
  2. Comparator circuit. The job of the comparator circuit is to convert analog voltage output of the sensor into a digital format for the microcontroller to read. The comparator circuit is built around opamp IC  LM324 (IC1). LM324 is a general purpose quad opamp which can be operated from a single supply. Out of the four comparators inside LM324, only two are used here. One for the left side and the other for the right side.
  3. Microcontroller (AT89S52). The task of the microcontroller here is to control the left and right motors according to the feedback signals from the left and right comparators so that the robot remains on the correct path (the black line).
  4. Motor driver circuit. The job of the motor driver circuit  is to drive the motors according to the output signals from the microcontroller. The motor driver circuit is based on ULN2003A IC. ULN2003A is a high current (500mA), high voltage (50V) darlington array consisting of seven darlington pairs with common emitter and open collector. Out of the seven channels available in the IC,only two are used here. One for the left channel and one for the right channel. 


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